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On This Day

Today is 24 July 2017, and this is some of what happened.

Events

1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily.
1148 - Louis VII of France lays siege to Damascus during the Second Crusade.
1411 - Battle of Harlaw, one of the bloodiest battles in Scotland, takes place.
1487 - Citizens of Leeuwarden, Netherlands strike against a ban on foreign beer.
1534 - French explorer Jacques Cartier plants a cross on the Gaspé Peninsula and takes possession of the territory in the name of Francis I of France.
1567 - Mary, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate and replaced by her 1-year-old son James VI.
1701 - Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founds the trading post at Fort Pontchartrain, which later becomes the city of Detroit.
1783 - The Kingdom of Georgia and the Russian Empire sign the Treaty of Georgievsk.
1814 - War of 1812: General Phineas Riall advances toward the Niagara River to halt Jacob Brown's American invaders.
1823 - Slavery is abolished in Chile.
1823 - In Maracaibo, Venezuela the naval Battle of Lake Maracaibo takes place, where Admiral José Prudencio Padilla, defeats the Spanish Navy, thus culminating the independence for the Gran Colombia.
1847 - After 17 months of travel, Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into Salt Lake Valley, resulting in the establishment of Salt Lake City.
1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Kernstown: Confederate General Jubal Early defeats Union troops led by General George Crook in an effort to keep them out of the Shenandoah Valley.
1866 - Reconstruction: Tennessee becomes the first U.S. state to be readmitted to the Union following the American Civil War.
1901 - O. Henry is released from prison in Columbus, Ohio after serving three years for embezzlement from a bank.
1910 - The Ottoman Empire captures the city of Shkodër, putting down the Albanian Revolt of 1910.
1911 - Hiram Bingham III re-discovers Machu Picchu, "the Lost City of the Incas".
1915 - The passenger ship S.S. Eastland capsizes while tied to a dock in the Chicago River. A total of 844 passengers and crew are killed in the largest loss of life disaster from a single shipwreck on the Great Lakes.
1922 - The draft of the British Mandate of Palestine was formally confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations; it came into effect on 26 September 1923.
1923 - The Treaty of Lausanne, settling the boundaries of modern Turkey, is signed in Switzerland by Greece, Bulgaria and other countries that fought in World War I.
1924 - Archeologist Themistoklis Sofoulis becomes Prime Minister of Greece.
1927 - The Menin Gate war memorial is unveiled at Ypres.
1929 - The Kellogg/Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (it is first signed in Paris on August 27, 1928 by most leading world powers).
1931 - A fire at a home for the elderly in Pittsburgh kills 48 people.
1935 - The Dust Bowl heat wave reaches its peak, sending temperatures to 109 °F (43 °C) in Chicago and 104 °F (40 °C) in Milwaukee.
1937 - Alabama drops rape charges against the so-called "Scottsboro Boys".
1938 - First ascent of the Eiger north face.
1943 - World War II: Operation Gomorrah begins: British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night, and American planes by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 30,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings.
1950 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station begins operations with the launch of a Bumper rocket.
1959 - At the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev have a "Kitchen Debate".
1963 - The ship Bluenose II was launched in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. The schooner is a major Canadian symbol.
1966 - Michael Pelkey makes the first BASE jump from El Capitan along with Brian Schubert. Both came out with broken bones. BASE jumping has now been banned from El Cap.
1967 - During an official state visit to Canada, French President Charles de Gaulle declares to a crowd of over 100,000 in Montreal: Vive le Québec libre! ("Long live free Quebec!"); the statement angered the Canadian government and many Anglophone Canadians.
1969 - Apollo program: Apollo 11 splashes down safely in the Pacific Ocean.
1974 - Watergate scandal: The United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon did not have the authority to withhold subpoenaed White House tapes and they order him to surrender the tapes to the Watergate special prosecutor.
1977 - End of a four-day-long Libyan/Egyptian War.
1980 - The Quietly Confident Quartet of Australia wins the Men's 4 x 100 metre medley relay at the Moscow Olympics, the only time the United States has not won the event at Olympic level.
1982 - Heavy rain causes a mudslide that destroys a bridge at Nagasaki, Japan, killing 299.
1983 - The Black July anti-Tamil riots begin in Sri Lanka, killing between 400 and 3,000. Black July is generally regarded as the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
1983 - George Brett batting for the Kansas City Royals against the New York Yankees, has a game-winning home run nullified in the "Pine Tar Incident".
1990 - Iraqi forces start massing on the Kuwait/Iraq border.
1991 - Manmohan Singh presents his budget speech to the Indian Parliament which led to economic liberalisation in India
1998 - Russell Eugene Weston, Jr. bursts into the United States Capitol and opens fire killing two police officers. He is later ruled to be incompetent to stand trial.
2001 - Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the last Tsar of Bulgaria when he was a child, is sworn in as Prime Minister of Bulgaria, becoming the first monarch in history to regain political power through democratic election to a different office.
2001 - Bandaranaike Airport attack is carried out by 14 Tamil Tiger commandos, all died in this attack. They destroyed 11 Aircraft (mostly military) and damaged 15, there are no civilian casualties. This incident slowed down Sri Lankan economy.
2011 - Digital switchover is completed in 44 of the 47 prefectures of Japan, with Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima television stations terminating analog broadcasting operations later as a result of the Tshoku earthquake.
2013 - A high-speed train derails in Spain rounding a curve with an 80 km/h (50 mph) speed limit at 190 km/h (120 mph), killing 78 passengers.
2014 - Air Algérie Flight 5017 loses contact with air traffic controllers 50 minutes after takeoff. It was travelling between Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and Algiers with 116 people on board. The wreckage is later found in Mali.

Births

1468 - Catherine of Saxony, Archduchess of Austria (died 1524)
1529 - Charles II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (died 1577)
1561 - Maria of the Palatinate-Simmern (died 1589)
1574 - Thomas Platter the Younger, Swiss physician and author (died 1628)
1660 - Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury, English politician, Lord High Treasurer (died 1718)
1689 - Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, son of Queen Anne of Great Britain and Prince George of Denmark (died 1700)
1725 - John Newton, English sailor and priest (died 1807)
1757 - Vladimir Borovikovsky, Ukrainian-Russian painter (died 1825)
1783 - Simón Bolívar, Venezuelan commander and politician, 2nd President of Venezuela (died 1830)
1786 - Joseph Nicollet, French mathematician and explorer (died 1843)
1794 - Johan Georg Forchhammer, Danish mineralogist and geologist (died 1865)
1802 - Alexandre Dumas, French novelist and playwright (died 1870)
1803 - Adolphe Adam, French composer and critic (died 1856)
1821 - William Poole, American boxer and gangster (died 1855)
1826 - Jan Gotlib Bloch, Polish theorist and activist (died 1902)
1851 - Friedrich Schottky, Polish-German mathematician and theorist (died 1935)
1853 - William Gillette, American actor and author (died 1937)
1856 - Émile Picard, French mathematician and academic (died 1941)
1857 - Henrik Pontoppidan, Danish journalist and author, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1943)
1857 - Juan Vicente Gómez, Venezuelan general and politician, 27th President of Venezuela (died 1935)
1860 - Princess Charlotte of Prussia (died 1919)
1860 - Alphonse Mucha, Czech painter and illustrator (died 1939)
1864 - Frank Wedekind, German actor and playwright (died 1918)
1867 - Vicente Acosta, Salvadoran journalist and poet (died 1908)
1867 - E. F. Benson, English archaeologist and author (died 1940)
1867 - Fred Tate, English cricketer and coach (died 1943)
1874 - Oswald Chambers, Scottish minister and author (died 1917)
1877 - Calogero Vizzini, Italian mob boss (died 1954)
1878 - Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany, Irish author, poet, and playwright (died 1957)
1880 - Ernest Bloch, Swiss-American composer and educator (died 1959)
1884 - Maria Caserini, Italian actress (died 1969)
1888 - Arthur Richardson, Australian cricketer and coach (died 1973)
1895 - Robert Graves, English poet, novelist, critic (died 1985)
1897 - Amelia Earhart, American pilot and author (died 1937)
1899 - Chief Dan George, Canadian actor (died 1981)
1899 - Bernice Madigan, American super-centenarian (died 2015)
1900 - Zelda Fitzgerald, American author and poet (died 1948)
1904 - Leo Arnaud, French-American trombonist, composer, and conductor (died 1991)
1904 - Richard born Morris, American historian and academic (died 1989)
1910 - Harry Horner, American director and production designer (died 1994)
1912 - Essie Summers, New Zealand author (died 1998)
1913 - Britton Chance, American biologist and sailor (died 2010)
1914 - Frances Oldham Kelsey, Canadian pharmacologist and physician (died 2015)
1914 - Ed Mirvish, American-Canadian businessman and philanthropist (died 2007)
1915 - Enrique Fernando, Filipino lawyer and jurist, 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines (died 2004)
1916 - John D. MacDonald, American colonel and author (died 1986)
1917 - Robert Farnon, Canadian trumpet player, composer, and conductor (died 2005)
1918 - Ruggiero Ricci, American violinist and educator (died 2012)
1919 - Robert Marsden Hope, Australian lawyer and judge (died 1999)
1919 - John Winkin, American baseball player, coach, and journalist (died 2014)
1920 - Bella Abzug, American lawyer and politician (died 1998)
1920 - Constance Dowling, American model and actress (died 1969)
1921 - Giuseppe Di Stefano, Italian tenor and actor (died 2008)
1921 - Billy Taylor, American pianist and composer (died 2010)
1922 - Madeleine Ferron, Canadian radio host and author (died 2010)
1924 - Wilfred Josephs, English composer (died 1997)
1924 - Aris Poulianos, Greek anthropologist and archaeologist
1927 - Alex Katz, American painter and sculptor
1927 - Zara Mints, Russian-Estonian philologist and academic (died 1990)
1930 - Alfred Balk, American journalist and author (died 2010)
1930 - Keshubhai Patel, Indian politician, 10th Chief Minister of Gujarat
1931 - Ermanno Olmi, Italian director, screenwriter, and cinematographer
1931 - Éric Tabarly, French commander (died 1998)
1932 - Gustav Andreas Tammann, German astronomer and academic
1934 - Sante Kimes, American murderer (died 2014)
1934 - P. S. Soosaithasan, Sri Lankan accountant and politician
1935 - Aaron Elkins, American author and academic
1935 - Pat Oliphant, Australian cartoonist
1935 - Mel Ramos, American painter, illustrator, and academic
1935 - Les Reed, English pianist, composer, and conductor
1935 - Derek Varnals, South African cricketer
1936 - Ruth Buzzi, American actress and comedian
1936 - Albert Marrin, American historian and author
1937 - Manoj Kumar, Indian actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
1937 - Quinlan Terry, English architect, designed the Brentwood Cathedral
1937 - Maeve McGuire, American actress
1938 - Alexis Jacquemin, Belgian economist and academic (died 2004)
1938 - Eugene J. Martin, American painter
1938 - John Sparling, New Zealand cricketer
1939 - Walt Bellamy, American basketball player and coach (died 2013)
1939 - David Simon, Baron Simon of Highbury, English businessman and politician
1940 - Dan Hedaya, American actor
1941 - John Bond, English banker and businessman
1942 - Heinz, German-English singer-songwriter and bass player (The Tornados) (died 2000)
1942 - David Miner, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
1942 - Chris Sarandon, American actor
1944 - Jim Armstrong, Northern Irish guitarist
1945 - Frank Close, English physicist and academic
1945 - Azim Premji, Indian businessman and philanthropist
1945 - Hugh Ross, Canadian-American astrophysicist and astronomer
1945 - Anthony Watts, English geologist, geophysicist, and academic
1946 - Gallagher, American comedian and actor
1946 - Friedhelm Haebermann, German footballer and manager
1946 - Hervé Vilard, French singer-songwriter
1947 - Zaheer Abbas, Pakistani cricketer and manager
1947 - Geoff McQueen, English screenwriter and producer (died 1994)
1947 - Peter Serkin, American pianist and educator
1948 - Michael Coveney, English author and critic
1949 - Michael Richards, American actor and comedian
1950 - James Glickenhaus, American film director and investment professional
1951 - Lynda Carter, American actress
1951 - Chris Smith, Baron Smith of Finsbury, English politician, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport
1952 - Gus Van Sant, American director, producer, and screenwriter
1953 - Julian Brazier, English captain and politician
1953 - Jon Faddis, American trumpet player, composer, and conductor
1953 - Claire McCaskill, American lawyer and politician
1953 - James Newcome, English bishop
1954 - Günter Böttcher, German handball player (died 2012)
1955 - Brad Watson, American author and academic
1956 - Charlie Crist, American lawyer and politician, 44th Governor of Florida
1957 - Pam Tillis, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actress
1958 - Joe Barry Carroll, American basketball player and philanthropist
1958 - Mick Karn, Cypriot-English guitarist and songwriter (Japan, Dalis Car, NiNa, and JBK) (died 2011)
1958 - Jim Leighton, Scottish footballer and coach
1960 - Catherine Destivelle, French rock climber and mountaineer
1961 - Kerry Dixon, English footballer and manager
1961 - Paul Geary, American singer, drummer, and manager (Extreme)
1962 - Johnny O'Connell, American race car driver and sportscaster
1963 - Karl Malone, American basketball player and coach
1964 - Barry Bonds, American baseball player
1964 - Pedro Passos Coelho, Portuguese economist and politician, 118th Prime Minister of Portugal
1964 - Urmas Kaljend, Estonian footballer
1964 - John Rosengren, American journalist and author
1965 - Andrew Gaze, Australian basketball player and sportscaster
1965 - Kadeem Hardison, American actor, director, and screenwriter
1965 - Doug Liman, American director and producer
1966 - Mo-Do, Italian singer-songwriter (died 2013)
1966 - Martin Keown, English footballer and coach
1968 - Kristin Chenoweth, American actress and singer
1968 - Colleen Doran, American author and illustrator
1968 - Malcolm Ingram, Canadian director, producer, and screenwriter
1968 - Laura Leighton, American actress
1969 - Rick Fox, Bahamian basketball player and actor
1969 - Jennifer Lopez, American actress, singer, and dancer
1973 - Amanda Stretton, English race car driver and journalist
1975 - Tracey Crouch, English politician, Minister for Sport and the Olympics
1975 - Dafydd James, Zambian-Welsh rugby player
1975 - Jamie Langenbrunner, American ice hockey player
1975 - Eric Szmanda, American actor
1975 - Torrie Wilson, American wrestler and model
1976 - Rafer Alston, American basketball player
1976 - Nate Bump, American baseball player
1976 - Tiago Monteiro, Portuguese race car driver and manager
1979 - Rose Byrne, Australian actress
1979 - Jerrod Niemann, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1979 - Valerio Scassellati, Italian race car driver
1979 - Anne-Gaëlle Sidot, French tennis player
1979 - Mark Andrew Smith, American author
1979 - Ryan Speier, American baseball player
1980 - Joel Stroetzel, American guitarist (Killswitch Engage and Aftershock)
1981 - Doug Bollinger, Australian cricketer
1981 - Summer Glau, American actress
1981 - Mark Robinson, English footballer
1982 - Chris Barrett, American director, producer, and author
1982 - Trevor Matthews, Canadian actor and producer, founded Brookstreet Pictures
1982 - Thiago Medeiros, Brazilian race car driver
1982 - Mewelde Moore, American football player
1982 - Elisabeth Moss, American actress
1982 - Anna Paquin, Canadian-born New Zealand actress
1982 - Michael Poppmeier, South African-German rugby player
1983 - Daniele De Rossi, Italian footballer
1984 - Patrick Harvey, Australian actor
1984 - Tyler Kyte, Canadian actor, singer, and drummer (Sweet Thing)
1984 - Adam Nelson, Scottish footballer
1985 - Patrice Bergeron, Canadian ice hockey player
1985 - Aries Merritt, American hurdler
1985 - Luká Rosol, Czech tennis player
1985 - Eric Wright, American football player
1987 - Jovan Belcher, American football player (died 2012)
1987 - Filipe Francisco dos Santos, Brazilian footballer
1987 - Nathan Gerbe, American ice hockey player
1987 - Zack Sabre, Jr., English wrestler
1988 - Ricky Petterd, Australian footballer
1988 - Han Seung-yeon, South Korean singer, dancer, and actress (Kara)
1989 - Maurkice Pouncey, American football player
1989 - Kim Tae-hwan, South Korean footballer
1990 - Travis Mahoney, Australian swimmer
1990 - Jay McGuiness, English singer (The Wanted)
1990 - Dean Stoneman, English race car driver
1991 - Manuel Fischnaller, Italian footballer
1992 - Dmitry Abyzov, Russian footballer
1992 - Mitch Grassi, American singer-songwriter (Pentatonix)
1992 - Mikaël Kingsbury, Canadian skier
1994 - Alejandra Álvarez, Ecuadorian tennis player

Deaths

811 - Gao Ying, Chinese politician (born 740)
946 - Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid, Egyptian ruler (born 882)
1115 - Matilda of Tuscany (born 1046)
1129 - Emperor Shirakawa of Japan (born 1053)
1240 - Konrad von Thüringen, German knight (born 1206)
1568 - Carlos, Prince of Asturias (born 1545)
1594 - John Boste, English martyr and saint (born 1544)
1739 - Benedetto Marcello, Italian composer and educator (born 1686)
1768 - Nathaniel Lardner, English theologian and author (born 1684)
1862 - Martin Van Buren, American lawyer and politician, 8th President of the United States (born 1782)
1891 - Hermann Raster, German-American journalist and politician (born 1827)
1908 - Vicente Acosta, Salvadoran journalist and poet (born 1867)
1910 - Arkhip Kuindzhi, Ukrainian-Russian painter (born 1841)
1922 - Saint George Ashe, Maltese-English rower (born 1871)
1957 - Sacha Guitry, French actor and director (born 1885)
1962 - Wilfrid Noyce, English mountaineer and author (born 1917)
1965 - Constance Bennett, American actress, singer, and producer (born 1904)
1966 - Tony Lema, American golfer (born 1934)
1969 - Witold Gombrowicz, Polish author and playwright (born 1904)
1970 - Peter de Noronha, Indian businessman, philanthropist, and civil servant (born 1897)
1974 - James Chadwick, English physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1891)
1980 - Uttam Kumar, Indian actor, director, and producer (born 1926)
1980 - Peter Sellers, English actor, singer, director, and screenwriter (born 1925)
1985 - Ezechiele Ramin, Italian missionary and martyr (born 1953)
1986 - Fritz Albert Lipmann, German-American biochemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1899)
1986 - Qudrat Ullah Shahab, Pakistani civil servant and author (born 1917)
1989 - Mark Morrisroe, American photographer (born 1959)
1991 - Isaac Bashevis Singer, Polish-American novelist and short story writer, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1902)
1992 - Arletty, French actress and singer (born 1898)
1992 - Sam Berger, Canadian lawyer and businessman (born 1900)
1993 - Rene Requiestas, Filipino actor (born 1957)
1994 - Helen Cordero, Cochiti Pueblo (Native American) Pueblo potter (born 1915)
1995 - Marjorie Cameron, American actress and painter (born 1922)
1995 - Jerry Lordan, English singer-songwriter (born 1934)
1995 - George Rodger, English photographer and journalist (born 1908)
1996 - Alphonso Theodore Roberts, Vincentian cricketer and activist (born 1937)
1997 - William J. Brennan, Jr., American colonel and jurist (born 1906)
1997 - Saw Maung, Burmese general and politician, 7th Prime Minister of Burma (born 1928)
2000 - Ahmad Shamloo, Iranian poet and journalist (born 1925)
2001 - Georges Dor, Canadian author, playwright, and composer (born 1931)
2001 - May Lesser Hyman, American illustrator (born 1927)
2005 - Richard Doll, English physiologist and epidemiologist (born 1912)
2007 - Albert Ellis, American psychologist and author (born 1913)
2007 - Nicola Zaccaria, Greek opera singer (born 1923)
2008 - Norman Dello Joio, American pianist and composer (born 1913)
2011 - Frank Dietrich, German politician (born 1966)
2011 - Dan Peek, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (America) (born 1950)
2011 - Harald Johnsen, Norwegian bassist and composer (born 1970)
2011 - David Servan-Schreiber, French physician, neuroscientist, and author (born 1961)
2011 - Skip Thomas, American football player (born 1950)
2012 - Chad Everett, American actor and director (born 1937)
2012 - Sherman Hemsley, American actor and singer (born 1938)
2012 - Larry Hoppen, American singer and guitarist (Orleans) (born 1951)
2012 - Robert Ledley, American physiologist and physicist, invented the CT scanner (born 1926)
2012 - Themo Lobos, Chilean author and illustrator (born 1928)
2012 - John Atta Mills, Ghanaian lawyer and politician, 3rd President of Ghana (born 1944)
2012 - Gregorio Peces-Barba, Spanish jurist and politician (born 1938)
2013 - Garry Davis, American pilot and activist, created the World Passport (born 1921)
2013 - Fred Dretske, American philosopher and academic (born 1932)
2013 - Virginia E. Johnson, American psychologist and sexologist (born 1925)
2013 - Pius Langa, South African lawyer and jurist, 19th Chief Justice of South Africa (born 1939)
2013 - Chiwoniso Maraire, Zimbabwean singer-songwriter (born 1976)
2014 - Ik-Hwan Bae, Korean-American violinist and educator (born 1956)
2014 - Yoo Chae-yeong, Korean-American singer-songwriter and actress (born 1973)
2014 - Dale Schlueter, American basketball player (born 1945)
2014 - Hans-Hermann Sprado, German journalist and author (born 1956)
2015 - Peg Lynch, American actress and screenwriter (born 1916)
2015 - Jim Mitchell, American captain, lawyer, and judge (born 1946)
2015 - Ingrid Sischy, South African-American journalist and critic (born 1952)
2016 - Marni Nixon, American actress and singer (born 1930)


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