|On This Day|
Today is 21 February 2018, and this is some of what happened.
Events362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria.
1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland, is granted resignation after confessing to torture and forgery.
1437 - James I of Scotland is assassinated.
1440 - The Prussian Confederation is formed.
1543 - Battle of Wayna Daga. A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeats a Muslim army led by Ahmed Gragn.
1613 - Mikhail I is unanimously elected Tsar by a national assembly, beginning the Romanov dynasty of Imperial Russia.
1797 - A force of 1,400 French soldier invaded Britain at Fishguard in support of the Society of United Irishmen. They were defeated by 500 British reservists.
1804 - The first self-propelling steam locomotive makes its outing at the Pen-y-Darren Ironworks in Wales.
1808 - Without a previous declaration of war, Russian troops cross the border to Sweden at Abborfors in eastern Finland, thus beginning the Finnish War, in which Sweden will lose the eastern half of the country (i.e. Finland) to Russia.
1828 - Initial issue of the Cherokee Phoenix is the first periodical to use the Cherokee syllabary invented by Sequoyah.
1842 - John Greenough is granted the first U.S. patent for the sewing machine.
1848 - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.
1862 - American Civil War: Battle of Valverde is fought near Fort Craig in New Mexico Territory.
1874 - The Oakland Daily Tribune publishes its first edition.
1878 - The first telephone directory is issued in New Haven, Connecticut.
1885 - The newly completed Washington Monument is dedicated.
1896 - An Englishman raised in Australia, Bob Fitzsimmons, fought an Irishman, Peter Maher, in an American promoted event which technically took place in Mexico, winning the 1896 World Heavyweight Championship in boxing.
1913 - Ioannina is incorporated into the Greek state after the Balkan Wars.
1916 - World War I: In France, the Battle of Verdun begins.
1918 - The last Carolina parakeet dies in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo.
1919 - German socialist Kurt Eisner is assassinated. His death results in the establishment of the Bavarian Soviet Republic and parliament and government fleeing Munich, Germany.
1921 - Constituent Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Georgia adopts the country's first constitution.
1925 - The New Yorker publishes its first issue.
1937 - The League of Nations bans foreign national "volunteers" in the Spanish Civil War.
1945 - World War II: Japanese kamikaze planes sink the escort carrier USS Bismarck Sea and damage the USS Saratoga.
1947 - In New York City, Edwin Land demonstrates the first "instant camera", the Polaroid Land Camera, to a meeting of the Optical Society of America.
1948 - NASCAR is incorporated.
1952 - The British government, under Winston Churchill, abolishes identity cards in the UK to "set the people free".
1952 - The Bengali Language Movement protests occur at the University of Dhaka in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
1958 - The CND symbol, aka peace symbol, commissioned by the Direct Action Committee in protest against the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, is designed and completed by Gerald Holtom.
1965 - Malcolm X is assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom in New York City.
1971 - The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is signed at Vienna.
1972 - United States President Richard Nixon visits the People's Republic of China to normalize Sino-American relations.
1972 - The Soviet unmanned spaceship Luna 20 lands on the Moon.
1973 - Over the Sinai Desert, Israeli fighter aircraft shoot down Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 jet killing 108.
1974 - The last Israeli soldiers leave the west bank of the Suez Canal pursuant to a truce with Egypt.
1975 - Watergate scandal: Former United States Attorney General John N. Mitchell and former White House aides H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman are sentenced to prison.
1995 - Steve Fossett lands in Leader, Saskatchewan, Canada becoming the first person to make a solo flight across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon.
2013 - At least 17 people are dead and 119 injured following several bombings in the Indian city of Hyderabad.
Births1484 - Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg (died 1535)
1556 - Sethus Calvisius, German astronomer, composer, and theorist (died 1615)
1621 - Rebecca Nurse, English-American victim of the Salem witch trials (died 1692)
1705 - Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, English admiral and politician (died 1781)
1728 - Peter III of Russia (died 1762)
1783 - Catharina of Württemberg (died 1835)
1791 - Carl Czerny, Austrian pianist and composer (died 1857)
1794 - Antonio López de Santa Anna, Mexican general and politician, 8th President of Mexico (died 1876)
1801 - John Henry Newman, English cardinal (died 1890)
1817 - José Zorrilla, Spanish poet and playwright (died 1893)
1821 - Charles Scribner I, American publisher, founded Charles Scribner's Sons (died 1871)
1836 - Léo Delibes, French pianist and composer (died 1891)
1844 - Charles-Marie Widor, French organist and composer (died 1937)
1860 - Goscombe John, Welsh-English sculptor and academic (died 1952)
1865 - John Haden Badley, English author and educator, founded the Bedales School (died 1967)
1867 - Otto Hermann Kahn, German banker and philanthropist (died 1934)
1875 - Jeanne Calment, French super-centenarian (died 1997)
1878 - Mirra Alfassa, French-Indian spiritual leader (died 1973)
1885 - Sacha Guitry, Russian-French actor, director, and playwright (died 1957)
1887 - Korechika Anami, Japanese general and politician, 54th Japanese Minister of War (died 1945)
1888 - Clemence Dane, English author and playwright (died 1965)
1892 - Harry Stack Sullivan, American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst (died 1949)
1893 - Celia Lovsky, Austrian-American actress (died 1979)
1893 - Andrés Segovia, Spanish guitarist (died 1987)
1894 - Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar, Indian chemist and academic (died 1955)
1895 - Henrik Dam, Danish biochemist and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1976)
1896 - Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Indian poet and author (died 1961)
1902 - Arthur Nock, English theologian and academic (died 1963)
1903 - Anaïs Nin, French-American author (died 1977)
1903 - Raymond Queneau, French poet and author (died 1976)
1907 - W. H. Auden, English-American poet, playwright, and composer (died 1973)
1909 - Hans Erni, Swiss painter, sculptor, and illustrator (died 2015)
1910 - Douglas Bader, English captain and pilot (died 1982)
1910 - Carmine Galante, American mob boss (died 1979)
1912 - Arline Judge, American actress and singer (died 1974)
1914 - Ilmari Juutilainen, Finnish soldier and pilot (died 1999)
1914 - Zachary Scott, American actor (died 1965)
1915 - Ann Sheridan, American actress (died 1967)
1921 - John Rawls, American philosopher and academic (died 2002)
1924 - Thelma Estrin, American computer scientist and engineer (died 2014)
1924 - Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwean educator and politician, 2nd President of Zimbabwe
1925 - Sam Peckinpah, American director and screenwriter (died 1984)
1925 - Jack Ramsay, American basketball player, coach, and sportscaster (died 2014)
1927 - Erma Bombeck, American journalist and author (died 1996)
1927 - Hubert de Givenchy, French fashion designer, founded Givenchy
1929 - Chespirito, Mexican actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (died 2014)
1929 - James Beck, English actor (died 1973)
1933 - Nina Simone, American singer-songwriter and pianist (died 2003)
1934 - Rue McClanahan, American actress (died 2010)
1935 - Richard A. Lupoff, American author
1936 - Barbara Jordan, American lawyer and politician (died 1996)
1937 - Ron Clarke, Australian runner and politician, Mayor of the Gold Coast (died 2015)
1937 - Jilly Cooper, English journalist and author
1937 - Gary Lockwood, American actor
1937 - Harald V of Norway
1940 - Peter Gethin, English race car driver (died 2011)
1940 - John Lewis, American activist and politician
1942 - Tony Martin, Trinidadian-American historian and academic (died 2013)
1942 - Margarethe von Trotta, German actress, director, and screenwriter
1943 - David Geffen, American businessman, co-founded DreamWorks and Geffen Records
1946 - Tyne Daly, American actress and singer
1946 - Anthony Daniels, English actor and producer
1946 - Alan Rickman, English actor and director (died 2016)
1946 - Bob Ryan, American journalist and author
1947 - Johnny Echols, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Love)
1947 - Olympia Snowe, American politician
1948 - Bill Slayback, American baseball player and singer (died 2015)
1949 - Frank Brunner, American illustrator
1949 - Larry Drake, American actor (died 2016)
1949 - Jerry Harrison, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Talking Heads and The Modern Lovers)
1951 - Dos Caras, Mexican wrestler and actor
1951 - Vince Welnick, American keyboard player (Grateful Dead, The Tubes, and Missing Man Formation) (died 2006)
1952 - Jean-Jacques Burnel, English bass player, songwriter, and producer (The Stranglers)
1953 - Christine Ebersole, American actress and singer
1953 - William Petersen, American actor and producer
1954 - Mike Pickering, English DJ and saxophonist (Quando Quango and M People)
1955 - Kelsey Grammer, American actor, singer, and producer
1958 - Jake Burns, Northern Irish singer-songwriter and guitarist (Stiff Little Fingers)
1958 - Mary Chapin Carpenter, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1958 - Jack Coleman, American actor and screenwriter
1958 - Alan Trammell, American baseball player, coach, and manager
1959 - José María Cano, Spanish singer-songwriter and painter (Mecano)
1960 - Plamen Oresharski, Bulgarian economist and politician, 52nd Prime Minister of Bulgaria
1960 - Steve Wynn, American singer-songwriter (The Dream Syndicate and The Baseball Project)
1961 - Christopher Atkins, American actor and businessman
1961 - Rhonda Sing, Canadian wrestler (died 2001)
1962 - Vanessa Feltz, English journalist and actress
1962 - Chuck Palahniuk, American journalist and author
1962 - David Foster Wallace, American author and academic (died 2008)
1963 - William Baldwin, American actor
1964 - Mark Kelly, American captain, pilot, and astronaut
1964 - Scott Kelly, American captain, pilot, and astronaut
1967 - Leroy Burrell, American runner and coach
1969 - James Dean Bradfield, Welsh singer-songwriter and guitarist (Manic Street Preachers)
1969 - Aunjanue Ellis, American actress and producer
1969 - Tony Meola, American soccer player and manager
1969 - Cathy Richardson, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Jefferson Starship and Big Brother and the Holding Company)
1970 - Michael Slater, Australian cricketer and sportscaster
1970 - Eric Wilson, American bass player and drummer (Sublime, Sublime with Rome and Long Beach Dub Allstars)
1971 - Randy Blythe, American singer-songwriter (Lamb of God)
1972 - Seo Taiji, South Korean singer-songwriter (Sinawe and Seo Taiji and Boys)
1973 - Heri Joensen, Faroese singer-songwriter and guitarist (Týr)
1973 - Brian Rolston, American ice hockey player and coach
1974 - Iván Campo, Spanish footballer
1974 - Roberto Heras, Spanish cyclist
1976 - Ryan Smyth, Canadian ice hockey player
1976 - Michael McIntyre, English comedian, actor and television presenter
1977 - Jonathan Safran Foer, American author and academic
1977 - Steve Francis, American basketball player
1977 - Owen King, American author
1977 - Kevin Rose, American businessman and television host, founded Digg
1978 - Park Eun-hye, South Korean actress
1978 - Nicole Parker, American actress
1979 - Tituss Burgess, American actor
1979 - Pascal Chimbonda, Guadeloupean-French footballer
1979 - Carly Colón, Puerto Rican-American wrestler
1979 - Shane Gibson, American guitarist (stOrk and Jonathan Davis and the SFA) (died 2014)
1979 - Jennifer Love Hewitt, American actress and producer
1979 - Jordan Peele, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1980 - Brad Fast, Canadian ice hockey player
1980 - Tiziano Ferro, Italian singer-songwriter and producer
1980 - Jim Vandermeer, Canadian ice hockey player
1980 - Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, Bhutanese king
1982 - Andre Barrett, American basketball player
1982 - Chantal Claret, American singer-songwriter and actress (Morningwood)
1982 - Tebogo Jacko Magubane, South African DJ and producer
1983 - Braylon Edwards, American football player
1983 - Franklin Gutiérrez, Venezuelan baseball player
1983 - Mélanie Laurent, French actress, singer, director, and screenwriter
1984 - Andrew Ellis, New Zealand rugby player
1984 - David Odonkor, German footballer
1984 - Marco Paoloni, Italian footballer
1984 - James Wisniewski, American ice hockey player
1985 - Crimson, American wrestler and actor
1985 - Georgios Samaras, Greek footballer
1985 - Jamaal Westerman, American football player
1986 - Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este
1986 - Charlotte Church, Welsh singer-songwriter and actress
1987 - Eniola Aluko, Nigerian-English footballer
1987 - Ashley Greene, American model and actress
1987 - Oliver Grey, English wrestler
1987 - Ellen Page, Canadian actress
1989 - Jem Karacan, English-Turkish footballer
1989 - Scout Taylor-Compton, American actress
1989 - Josh Walker, English footballer
1990 - David Addy, Ghanaian footballer
1990 - Mattias Tedenby, Swedish ice hockey player
1991 - Allday, Australian rapper
1991 - Riyad Mahrez, Algerian footballer
1991 - Gregory Mertens, Belgian footballer (died 2015)
1991 - Ji So-yun, South Korean footballer
1991 - Devon Travis, American baseball player
1993 - Steve Leo Beleck, Cameroonian footballer
1994 - Tang Haochen, Chinese tennis player
1994 - Charalampos Mavrias, Greek footballer
1996 - Sophie Turner, English actress
Deaths1437 - James I of Scotland (born 1394)
1471 - Jan Rokycana, Czech bishop and theologian (born 1396)
1513 - Pope Julius II (born 1443)
1543 - Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Somalian general (born 1507)
1554 - Hieronymus Bock, German botanist and physician (born 1498)
1572 - Cho Shik, Korean poet and scholar (died 1501)
1595 - Robert Southwell, English priest and poet (born 1561)
1677 - Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher and scholar (born 1632)
1715 - Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore, English politician (born 1637)
1730 - Pope Benedict XIII (born 1649)
1821 - Georg Friedrich von Martens, German jurist and diplomat (born 1756)
1824 - Eugène de Beauharnais, French general (born 1781)
1862 - Justinus Kerner, German poet and physician (born 1786)
1891 - James Timberlake, American lieutenant and police officer (born 1846)
1919 - Kurt Eisner, German journalist and politician, Minister-President of Bavaria (born 1867)
1926 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Dutch physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1853)
1934 - Augusto César Sandino, Nicaraguan rebel leader (born 1895)
1938 - George Ellery Hale, American astronomer and academic (born 1868)
1941 - Frederick Banting, Canadian physician and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1891)
1944 - Ferenc Szisz, Hungarian-French race car driver (born 1873)
1945 - Eric Liddell, Scottish rugby player and runner (born 1902)
1946 - José Streel, Belgian journalist (born 1911)
1949 - Tan Malaka, Indonesian educator and activist (born 1894)
1958 - Duncan Edwards, English footballer (born 1936)
1965 - Malcolm X, American minister and activist (born 1925)
1967 - Charles Beaumont, American author and screenwriter (born 1929)
1968 - Howard Florey, Australian pathologist and pharmacologist, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1898)
1972 - Zhang Guohua, Chinese general and politician (born 1914)
1972 - Bronislava Nijinska, Russian-American dancer and choreographer (born 1891)
1972 - Eugène Tisserant, French cardinal (born 1884)
1974 - Tim Horton, Canadian ice hockey player and businessman, co-founded Tim Hortons (born 1930)
1980 - Alfred Andersch, German-Swiss author (born 1914)
1982 - Gershom Scholem, German-Israeli historian and philosopher (born 1897)
1982 - Murray the K, American radio host (born 1922)
1984 - Mikhail Sholokhov, Russian novelist and short story writer, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1905)
1985 - Louis Hayward, South African-American actor (born 1909)
1986 - Shigechiyo Izumi, Japanese centenarian (born 1865)
1986 - Helen Hooven Santmyer, American author, poet, and academic (born 1895)
1991 - Nutan, Indian actress and singer (born 1936)
1991 - Dorothy Auchterlonie Green, Australian poet, critic, and academic (born 1915)
1993 - Inge Lehmann, Danish seismologist and geophysicist (born 1888)
1994 - Johannes Steinhoff, German general and pilot (born 1913)
1996 - Morton Gould, American pianist, composer, and conductor (born 1913)
1999 - Gertrude born Elion, American biochemist and pharmacologist, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1918)
1999 - Ilmari Juutilainen, Finnish soldier and pilot (born 1914)
1999 - Wilmer Mizell, American baseball player and politician (born 1930)
2002 - John Thaw, English actor and producer (born 1942)
2004 - John Charles, Welsh footballer and manager (born 1931)
2005 - Guillermo Cabrera Infante, Cuban author, screenwriter, and critic (born 1929)
2008 - Ben Chapman, American actor (born 1928)
2008 - Neil Chotem, Canadian conductor and composer (born 1920)
2011 - Abdulredha Buhmaid, Bahraini protester (born 1982)
2011 - Dwayne McDuffie, American author and screenwriter, co-founded Milestone Media (born 1962)
2011 - Bernard Nathanson, American physician and activist (born 1926)
2012 - H. M. Darmstandler, American general (born 1922)
2012 - Colin Ireland, English serial killer (born 1954)
2012 - Barney Rosset, American publisher (born 1922)
2013 - Hasse Jeppson, Swedish footballer (born 1925)
2013 - Kaoru Kobayashi, Japanese murderer (born 1968)
2013 - Magic Slim, American singer and guitarist (born 1937)
2014 - Héctor Maestri, Cuban-American baseball player (born 1935)
2014 - Matthew Robinson, Australian snowboarder (born 1985)
2014 - Cornelius Schnauber, German/American historian, playwright, and academic (born 1939)
2014 - John Strawson, English general (born 1921)
2015 - Aleksei Gubarev, Russian general, pilot, and astronaut (born 1931)
2015 - Robert O. Marshall, American businessman (born 1939)
2015 - Sadeq Tabatabaei, Iranian journalist and politician (born 1943)
2015 - Clark Terry, American trumpet player, composer, and educator (born 1920)
2016 - Eric Brown, Scottish-English captain and pilot (born 1919)